February 22, 2018


ABSORPTION:  Taking in or reception, by molecular and/ or physical action. The property of four to hold and absorb moisture.

Acidity: Sourness or tartness in a food product; a condition indicating excess fermentation in yeast doughs. Also a factor used with soda to generate carbon dioxide gas for leavening cakes.

Aeration: The treatment of dough or batter by changing with gas to produce a volume increase.

Albumin: Egg white.

Almond paste: Almonds ground to paste with sugar and used for cake decoration.

Ash: The incombustible residue left after burning matter. The term is used to denote the level of bran present in maida.

Bacteria: Microscopic organisms, various species of which are involved in fermentation and spoilage of food.

Bake: To cook or roast by dry heat in a closed chamber such as an oven.

Baking powder: A chemical leavening agent composed of soda, dry acids, and corn starch (to absorb moisture), when heated, carbon dioxide is given off, to raise the batter during baking.

Batter: A homogeneous mixture of ingredients with liquid to make a mass that has soft plastic character.

Bench tolerance: The property of dough to ferment at a rate slow enough to prevent over fermentation while dough is being made up into small units on the bench.

Bleeding: Term is applied to dough that has been cut and left unsealed at the cut surface, thus permitting the escape of leavening gas.

Crescent rolls: Hard crusted rolls shaped into crescents, often with seeds on top.

Cripple: A misshapen, burnet or otherwise undesirable unit.

Crusting: Formation of dry crust on surface of doughs due to evaporation of water.

Custard: A sweetened mixture of egg and milk which is baked or cooked over hot water.

Danish pastry: A flaky yeast dough having butter or shortening rolled into it.

Diastase: An enzyme possessing the power to convert starches into dextrin and maltose.

Divider: A machine used for cutting doughs into desired size or weight. The dough is cut by volume not by weight.

Docking: Punching a number of vertical impressions in a dough with a smooth, round stick. Docking is done so that dough expands uniformly without bursting during baking.

Dough: The thickened uncooked mass of combined ingredients for bread, rolls and biscuits but usually applied for bread.

Dough room: Special room in which doughs are mixed.

Dough temperature: Temperature of dough at different stages of processing.

Doughnut (donut): A cake, frequently with a center hole, made of yeast or baking powder and fried in deep fat.

Dry yeast: A dehydrated form of active yeast.

Dusting: Distributing a thin film of flour or starch on pans or work bench surface.

Dusting flour: Flour used to sift on to dough handling equipment to prevent dough from sticking.

Eclair: A long thin shell of the same paste as cream puffs.

Emulsification: The process of blending together fat and water solutions of ingredients to produce a stable mixture which will not separate on standing.

Enriched bread: Bread made from enriched flour and containing prescribed amounts of vitamins and minerals.

Enzyme: A substance produced by living organisms which has the power to bring about changes in organic material.

Fat absorption: Fat absorbed in food products as they are fried in deep fat.

Fermentation: The chemical changes of an organic compound due to action of living organism (yeast, bacteria) usually producing a leavening gas.

Foam: Mass of beaten egg and sugar, as in a sponge cake before flour is added.

Fold: To lap yeast dough over on to itself. With cake batter to lift  and lap the batter on to it self to lightly incorporate the ingredients.

Fondant: Low moisture content sugar syrup containing a small quantity of invert syrup which has been rapidly cooled so that the sugar crystals are small in size.

Formula: In baking, recipe giving ingredients, amounts to be used and method of combining them.

French bread: An unsweetened crusty bread, baked in a narrow strip and containing little or no shortening.

Fruit cake: A cake containing large amounts of fruits and nuts with only enough cake batter to bind them together.

Germ: The part of seed from which new plant grows.

Glace: Sugar so treated as to resemble ice.

Gliadin: One of the two proteins comprising gluten which provides elasticity.

Glucose: A simple sugar made by action of acid on starch.

Gluten: The elastic protein mass that is formed when the protein material of wheat flour is mixed with water.

Glutenin: One of the two proteins comprising gluten, which gives strength.

Greasing: Spreading a film of fat on a surface such as bread moulds or baking trays.

Hardness of water: A measure of mineral salts in greater amounts than is found in soft water.

Hearth: The heated baking surface of the floor of an oven.

Hot cross buns: Sweet, spicy, fruity buns with cross cut on top which is usually filled with plain icing.

Humidity: Usually expressed as " relative humidity" which is an expression of percent of moisture in air related to the total moisture capacity of that air at a particular temperature.

Hydrogenated oil:  A natural oil that has been treated with hydrogen to convert it to a hardened form.

Ice: To frost or put on an icing or frosting.

Ingredients: Food material blended to give palatable products.

Invert sugar: A mixture of dextrose and levulose made by inverting sucrose with acid or enzyme.

Jelly: A combination of fruit juice and sugar, stiffened by the action of the pectin of the fruit, as a result of heating.

Lactose: The sugar of milk.

Lard: Rendered hog fat.

Leavening: Raising or lightening by air, steam or gas (carbon dioxide). The agent for generating gas in a dough or batter is usually yeast or baking powder.

Levulose: A simple sugar found in honey and fruits.

Macaroons: Small biscuits made from coconut or almond paste, sugar and egg white.

Make up: manual or mechanical manipulation of dough to provide desired size and shape.

Malt extract: A syrupy liquid obtained from malt mesh; a product obtained as a result of converting the starch of sugar.

Marble cake: A cake of two or three colours partially mixed.

Marshmallow: A white confection of meringue like consistency.

Marzipan: Almond paste used for modeling, masking and tortans.

Masking: Act of covering with icing or frosting.

Meal: Coarsely ground grain.

Melting point: The temperature at which a solid becomes liquid.

Meringue: A white frothy mass of beaten egg white and sugar.

Middlings: Granular particles of the endosperm of wheat made during grinding of grain in the mills.

Milk solids: The solid materials of milk after water has been removed.

Mix: The combined ingredients of a dough or batter.

Mixing bowl: A concave, hemispherical container for mixing.

Moisture:  Water content of a substance.

Molasses: Light or dark brown syrup obtained in making cane sugar.

Moulder:  machine that shapes dough pieces for various shapes.

Muffins:  Small, light, quick breads in muffin pans.

Old dough: Yeast dough which has become over fermented due to long fermentation. This produces finished baking loaf dark in crumb colour, sour in taste and flavour, low in volume, coarse in grain and open in texture.

Pans: Various shaped metal containers for baking or cooking.

Pie: Dessert with pastry bottom, fruit or cream filling and topped with meringue , whipped cream or pastry.

Plasticity: The consistency or feel of shortening.

Proof box: A tightly closed bos or cabinet equipped with shelves to permit the introduction of heat and steam used for proofing fermented products.

Proofing period:  The time during which dough rises between moulding and baking.

Puff paste: A pastry dough inter layered with butter or shortening to attain flakiness.  Leavened during baking by the internally generated steam.

Quick breads: Bread products baked from lean chemically leavened batter.

Raisins: Dried sweet grapes, may be dark or bleached.

Rocks:  Small rough surfaced fruit cookies made from a stiff batter.

Rolling pan: Smooth surfaced wood pieces for rolling dough.

Rolls: Small bread made from yeast leavened dough sometimes called buns, may be hard or soft crusted.

Rope: A spoiling bacterial growth in bread experienced when the dough becomes infected with bacterial spores. Poor sanitation can result in rope in bread.

Rounding or handing up: Shaping of dough pieces into a ball to seal end and prevent bleeding and escape of gas.

Royal icing: Decorative frosting of icing sugar and egg white.

Scaling: Apportioning batter or dough according to unit of weight.

Scoring: Judging finished goods according to points of perfection, or to cut or slash the top surface of dough pieces.

Shortening: Fat or oil used to tenderize baked products or to fry food products.

Sifting:  Pass through fine sieve for effective blending and to remove foreign or oversized particles.

Snaps: Small biscuits that run flat during baking and become crisp on cooling.

Solidifying point: Temperature at which a fluid changes to a solid state.

Stabilizer: Commercial preparations sold for use in meringues, pie fillings, icings and marshmallows.

Starch water: A mixture of corn starch and water made by boiling together one or two tablespoons of corn starch and about a liter of  water.  This is used for brushing on bread to give a shine to the crust.

Straight flour: Flour containing all the wheat berry except the bran and feed.

Sugar (cane or Beet) - Sucrose:  Common and usually granulated sweetening agent.

Corn sugar - Dextrose: A form of sugar made from corn and readily fermentable.

Maltose:  A form of sugar obtained by germinating cereal grain. Usually supplied as a syrup.

Tarts:  Small pastries with heavy fruit filling or cream.

Tea rolls:  Small sweet buns.

Tempering: Adjusting temperature of ingredients to a certain (desired) degree.

Testing: trying a cake or bread at the oven for doneness.

Texture: Describes the measure of silkiness of the interior structure of a baked product as sensed by the touch of the cut surface.

Thermometer: An instrument for measuring heat or cold.

Troughs: large containers usually on wheels used for holding large masses of rising (fermenting) doughs.

Tutti Frutti: A confection or filling made of a fruit mixture.

Vienna bread: A hearth type bread with heavy crisp crust, sometime finished with seed topping.

Wash: A liquid brushed on the surface of an unbaked product. May be water, milk, starch solution, thin syrup or egg.

Water absorption: Water required to produce bread dough of desired consistency. flours vary in their ability to absorb water. This depends on the age of flour, its moisture content, wheat from it is milled, storage condition and milling process.

Whip: A hand or mechanical beater of wire construction used to whip materials such as cream or egg white to a frothy consistency.

Yeast: A microscopic pant which reproduces by budding and causes fermentation and the giving off carbon dioxide.

Young doughs: Yeast dough which is under fermented. This produces finished yeast goods which are dark (harsh reddish brown) in crust colour, tight in grain and low in volume.

(Source: Basic Baking By S.C. Dubey)

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